自我审查不工作。因此，在1968年，MPAA评级系统出现了。直到政府审查的威胁，以及法院对“州际巡回法院诉达拉斯案”和“金斯伯格诉纽约案”的判决，关于它的辩论才平息下来，这两起案件都考虑了在城市范围内审查不适当内容的指示，促使好莱坞在自我审查准则衰落的日子里采取行动。前MMPDA，在1945年成为MPAA，开始制定这个计划。在杰克·瓦伦蒂主席的领导下，该组织做出的最重要的决定是将评级系统的形式从自我审查转变为自我分级。该系统于1968年启动，是我们现在正在使用的系统的前身。电影制片人自愿提交他们的电影以进行评估，评估员将看电影并根据主题和所显示的内容选择一个类别。在电影院里，您可以显示评级，观众将决定他想观看的内容以及他不想要的东西。It’s the rating of the content, not its quality, but it does say something about the film.In the half-century of the system’s existence, its two main goals remain unchanged: – by Reviewing and classifying films, the MPAA keeps the government from influencing the freedom of artistic vision.- By providing information to viewers, the Association helps parents to make an informed decision (the focus is always on parents and children) about what to entertain children.At least at first glance, protecting artists from the government and providing useful information seem like useful things — most people can agree with that.But the MPAA ratings are a constant source of controversy, in part because society is constantly changing the criteria by which a film should be classified in one category or another. In 2013, for example, the system began to take into account the presence of Smoking scenes. In 1968, it was impossible to think about it.Looking now “Back to the future”, released in 1985 with a rating of PG (a year after the appearance of a rating of PG-13), you can be surprised that in a film with such a label can be so much swearing plus cruelty and obscenely ambiguous scenes (for example, the one where Marty’s mother, as a teenager, tries to kiss him). And this is not uncommon for most films rated PG in the early years of the system-both because of the fact that PG-13 was not yet introduced (in the case of “Jaws” in 1975 or “Dear mother” in 1981), and because of the tastes and preferences of those who put down ratings at the time (think “Beatlejus”, “who framed Roger Rabbit” and “big”, released in 1988).Clearly, they would now get a PG-13 rating, but not just because of the content itself. And also because PG-13 rated movies make the most money.In any case, for the market, a PG rating means that the film is family-friendly or for kids who have grown out of sliders; a G rating is already firmly tied to the “kids only” label; and an R rating, inherently, prohibits viewing by a portion of the audience. But the PG-13 rating works for a wide market: such films are suitable for both teenagers and adults, they are not too serious, not too detailed, and you can safely send a teenager without an adult escort to them.That’s why studios love to release PG-13 movies. They try to reach the widest audience. They want to get huge profits from huge investments.There are other factors in which to argue with the MPAA system. Sometimes films that come out in a row are judged controversially, and for half a century the MPAA has been criticized for the way it applies its own rules.For example, take language-it is easy to track, but the approach of the organization to it is simply ridiculous. In a PG-13 rated film, there may be one (and only one) word “fuck” and only if it is used as an interjection or not to describe sexual contact. Another such word — in absolutely any context, even in a historical film about the war-and the rating jumps to R. this happened with quite modest films like” Ghost Story”,” Once upon a time ” and “Eighth grade”, but pictures like the brutal superhero “suicide Squad” or slightly raunchy Comedy “Night school” remained with a rating of PG-13.But the biggest problems — and the most pressing in the case of the “Hunt” story-are related to how differently the organization evaluates sexual content and violent content: the system treats sex tougher than blood. In a film rated PG-13, there can be no nudity, but there can be a bit of cruelty, the main thing is that there is no blood and bloody battles shown in detail (in the description of the rating, this is often called “cartoon” cruelty). Any sexual content, except for the most transparent hints, raises the rating of the film to R. And in the framework of sex, not all content is equal. Until recently, it was easier to see female genitalia than male genitalia in R-rated films and fully Nude people (they can be seen in such films, but very rarely — and especially rarely in the case of black actors).The rating system is more squeamish about descriptions of female sex: for example, scenes of female Masturbation and cunnilingus were more likely to receive higher ratings than scenes with similar male actions — and sometimes they had to be cut out in order to avoid the NC-17 rating (and this rating ensures that very few people will see the film, since many cinemas do not even buy such content).But in 2019, the greatest discontent is caused by the sloppy standards of the rating system in relation to a specific category, important in the case of ” Hunting» — cruelties.The effect of the rating system on cruelty rarely affects violence outside of films in 2018, after the mass shootings in Florida, President trump met with lawmakers and discussed reducing the number of shootings. He noted that cruelty in films can be the reason: “You see these films, they are cruel, and at the same time a child can safely watch them, the main thing is that there is no sex in it. And murders can be. And maybe they should introduce a rating system for murders.”Even if you forget about the lack of visible connection between violence on screen and in real life and the fact that “they” have a rating system for murders for half a century-trump was not entirely wrong. If easier — in American films very many violent scenes with use of firearms.And not only in films with rating R (have “of Hunting” rating declare not typically recognized, but on trailer goes, that there should be R). A study published in 2017 by the Annenberg public policy center at the University of Pennsylvania claims that in grossing PG-13-rated films-like any films of the Marvel cinematic universe — there is more violence than in the top rated R movies. Moreover, PG-13 movies are more preferred to studios than R rated movies, so the pictures often cut out the consequences of shootings, like blood and suffering, in order to provide a lower rating.The study pointed out that while previous work has not looked at how violence in movies affects the real world, “the American Academy of pediatricians noted that there is a fair amount of research indicating that violent content can affect some Teens and make them more aggressive.” For a long time, American politicians have tried to link mass shootings to violent movies, even when there has been no research to support this theory; for example, in 1999, after the shooting at Columbine school, President bill Clinton said that he had contacted the national Association of cinemas, and now teenagers will be asked for a passport when they go to the sessions of films with a rating of R. the Annenberg study from 2017 said that “apparently, the MPAA believe that cruelty performed by comic book heroes causes less harm than cruelty showing blood and various other, more realistic consequences.”At the same time the relationship between the gun industry and Hollywood was carefully documented in another 2017 study — it was conducted by the Hollywood Reporter, which took into account the supply of weapons for Hollywood films and participation in product placement. And there is a similar relationship-also carefully described — between Hollywood and the US army (from army-backed films to the Pentagon’s long-standing collaboration with content makers), according to unconfirmed reports, prompting studios to choose those scenarios in which militarism and the army are promoted. Weapons and the army cannot be connected by a straight line, but when considering the MPAA’s policy on violence, the link between them must be considered.However, the goals of the ratings system remain the same — to keep the government away from running Hollywood and to provide viewers with information on the basis of which they can decide what to spend the entertainment portion of the salary. And it is these goals that the actions of Universal, which postponed the “Hunt”, can jeopardize.
通用决定推迟“狩猎”可能开辟新的领域的不愉快的前景self-censorykak许多已经指出,虽然我们不知道到底发生了什么“狩猎”,在电影中美丽的丰富的自由主义者的概率成功狩猎农人和特朗普的球迷,为结果而欣喜，开着他们的“普锐斯”去找拿铁，这是非常小的。在拖车通常试图隐藏细节,以便观众至少可以感到惊讶,当看到一个成熟的电影,和脚本编写的这张照片是最著名的球迷扭曲的情节,达蒙Lindelof(系列“活着”和“放弃”),和他忠实的合作者之一。那些想了半秒钟的人意识到，在预告片中，不是所有的东西都会出现在电影里。但问题并不完全在于此。重点是仇恨。去年类似的“月球上的人”故事表明，对“自由的好莱坞”的正确说法不是福克斯和它的朋友，包括特朗普总统想要的。不管你是否希望《狩猎》这样的电影原则上存在(我想这是一个理性的人会有分歧的问题):稍微想想，你就会明白环球影业不应该以这种方式推迟上映。尽管美国电影协会的评级系统有很多缺点，但它为艺术家和观众提供了自由。电影制作人可以创造他们想要的东西。没有人力量看,政府不会禁止(是的,许多影院规则某些类别的观众可以为pg - 13级电影和R买票,但这些规则制定作为协议的一部分连锁电影院和MPAA——不是在国家或联邦级别)。每个人都可以自己做决定。 The system, despite numerous shortcomings, still works.